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Remote Inspection of PPVC Fabrication Process

How might we intelligently monitor and inspect the fabrication process for PPVC modules, so that it can be done remotely?

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Challenge Statement Owner
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Review the presentation video and slides from the Q&A session.

Background and Current Practice

The fabrication of Prefabricated Prefinished Volumetric Construction (PPVC) modules is currently done in dedicated production facilities located in Singapore and Malaysia. 

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Quality checks are required during the different stages of the fabrication process to ensure that the PPVC modules are constructed accurately based on the required specifications. The following is a non-exhaustive list of examples of checks required for key elements, which are further illustrated in the document found under Resources:

Pre-pour stage

  • Measure the mould size.

  • Verify the size of the rebar and measure the spacing distance.

  • Measure the size of the openings and verify the accuracy of their positions.

  • Verify the size of the electrical conduit and the accuracy of its position.

  • Verify the size of the plumbing pipe and the accuracy of its position.

Post-pour stage

  • Measure the resulting carcass size.

  • Measure the size of the openings and verify the accuracy of their positions.

  • Verify the accuracy of position for mechanical and electrical provisions. 

The inspectors currently travel to the site to conduct quality checks on selected activities in the fabrication process. COVID-19 has made it more challenging to conduct these visits. At the fabrication site, the inspectors require the assistance of the workers to make measurements manually using measuring tapes or digital calipers, while they observe and capture photographic evidence for documentation purposes.

Opportunities and Key Challenges

We are interested in using imaging and/or LIDAR devices enabled by Artificial Intelligence to support the remote monitoring and inspection of the PPVC fabrication process. This potentially allows the inspectors to cut down on their travelling time and generate better documentation.


Here are some key considerations:

  • The current plan is to have imaging devices that can be mounted on the ceilings. But this might offer limited visibility of the fabrication process. We are interested in exploring different ways of deploying imaging devices.

  • The solution should be capable of accurately measuring the key elements mentioned in the above list of quality checks. 

  • The required precision of the measurement varies according to the inspection task. For rebar size, the measurement needs to be in millimeters. 

  • As part of the inspection process, the solution should capture photographic evidence intelligently and tag the photos for easy reporting.

Expected Outcomes


The solution enables the remote monitoring and inspection of the PPVC fabrication process by intelligently capturing the measurements of the key elements and documenting the inspection process. The solution minimises the need for the inspectors to travel to site to conduct quality checks.